Dario Floreano and Claudio Mattiussi, Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence: Theories, Methods, and Technologies, 2008.

Conclusion, p. 585 : “A careful reader have noticed that we have not yet defined what intelligence is. This was done on purpose because intelligence has different meanings for different persons and in different situations. For example, some believe that intelligence is the ability to be creative; other think that it is the ability to make predictions; and others believe that intelligence exists only in the eye of the observer. In this book we have shown that biological and artificial intelligence manifests itself though multiple processes and mechanisms that interact at different spatial and temporal scales to produce emergent and functional behavior. The most important implication of the approaches presented here is that understanding and engineering intelligence does not reduce to replicating a mammalian brain in a computer but requires also capturing multiply types and levels of interactions, such as those between brains and bodies, individual and societies, learning and behavior, evolution and development, self-protection and self-repair, to mention a few”.

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